What are the main resources developed by your organization you’d be willing to share? (e.g. reports, analyses, scripts, educational materials, video clips, webinars… Please share the links.)

  • “Dealing with Disinformation. A Handbook for Journalists” – the publication aims to empower journalists to identify/ effectively respond to disinformation online and rebuild trust; it also contains legal strategies and best practices for improving journalists’ digital safety (particularly regarding the protection of journalists cyber violence): https://panoptykon.org/dealing-disinformation.
  • “Who (really) targets you. Facebook in Polish election campaign” – the report contains research findings and recommendations for policymakers and experts interested in regulating political micro-targeting and transparency of election campaigns in social media and fellow researchers and activists. They struggle with the same questions: https://panoptykon.org/political-ads-report.

Which are, in your opinion, the three biggest current challenges related to countering disinformation in your country?

  • The extreme polarisation of the society,
  • The polarisation of media and low trust in it among society,
  • Lack of appropriate policies that would regulate key actors’ practices, such as tech platforms, politicians, etc.

Could you name three solutions that you implemented or else want to recommend as an advice how to counter disinformation, strengthen societies’ critical thinking skills and build civil resilience to disinformation?

  • Series of workshops and handbook for journalists empowering journalists to counter disinformation more effectively (described above),
  • Popularising in Poland “Who targets me” plugin – a tool that helps users track political ads on Facebook,
  • Set of recommendations concerning regulating micro-targeting of political advertising online (as a result of a research project focused on that area; suggestions are available in the report mentioned above).

What are the top three events or dates you have witnessed this year that have caused an intensification of disinformation activities?

  • The pandemic of Covid-19; presidential elections; ongoing reform of the judiciary in Poland.

In your opinion, which future three dates/events are likely to bring about the intensification of disinformation activities in 2020-2021?

  • Continuation of the pandemic; presidential elections in the US, in Poland: further political polarisation of the society after the recent presidential elections.

What are the prevailing disinformation narratives you have observed in the media space this year.

In Poland, these were smear campaigns targeted at political opposition, human rights-oriented civil society organizations, and groups, the LGBT community, etc. in the coverage of the Polish public service media or private media outlets supporting the government.


Have you been relying on any fact-checking tools? If yes, please describe them or share the links.

We do not engage in direct fact-checking; occasionally, we use OSINT tools recommended in Chapter 1 of our handbook for journalists.


Would you like to highlight any of the disinformation cases you have witnessed/ discovered/ debunked?

One of the hilarious examples recently debunked by independent media was a news material in the public service TV broadcaster in the presidential campaign. A fake fashion designer endorsed the first lady’s dressing style (the story is further explained here:https://oko.press/duda-przegrywa-proces-wiadomosci-wymyslily-projektanta/).


In your opinion, who are the best performing actors – in your country, as well as in the EU – playing crucial roles in the field of media literacy today and why?

Several civil society organizations working in various areas of media literacy.


Lawyer at Panoptykon Foundation
Engaged, self-starting, thorough