Manipulating sources: manipulation with sources of ‘information’. Either providing no sources, or sources are not clear or anonymous, or are fake social media accounts.
Manipulating data, including statistical data to draw premeditated conclusions.
Fabrication of content and photo manipulation – e.g. illustrating a fake event or situation, or story with old photos or photos from different locations than where the situation allegedly has taken place, or fake photos; photo editing.
Using automated bots to strengthening ‘visibility’ and credibility for a specific narrative in social media.
Infiltrating established social media groups, chats, forums and spreading fake news or conspiracy theories.
Subliminal manipulation of audiences by focusing on violence and multiplying graphic images in reported events.
Triggering ‘psychological contagion’ – presenting emotionally charged disinformation to influence audiences and spread specific narratives.