Manipulating sources: manipulation with sources of ‘information’. Either providing no sources, or sources are not clear or anonymous, or are fake social media accounts.
Distorting facts: purposeful misrepresentation of a true fact or event by concealing a critical part or detail.
Presenting invented stories as true facts.
Misleading opinions presented as facts.
Using fake or invented experts and presenting them as independent and their views as reliable and authoritative.
Quoting reports of non-existing think tanks or research centres.
Presenting opinions of insignificant media outlets as reputable ones.
Manipulating data, including statistical data to draw premeditated conclusions.
Methodological manipulation of surveys or misrepresenting results of a survey to support a disinformation narrative.
Fabrication of content and photo manipulation – e.g. illustrating a fake event or situation, or story with old photos or photos from different locations than where the situation allegedly has taken place, or fake photos; photo editing.
Video tricks: Using old videos in a new context, creating fake videos, deepfakes.
Manipulating statements or interviews and presenting parts of them out of context.
Creating fake quotations of esteemed personalities, politicians, experts.
Presenting in media a disinformation narrative as enjoying support in a wider society.
Using automated bots to strengthening ‘visibility’ and credibility for a specific narrative in social media.
Presenting a disinformation narrative as a “hidden truth”.
Infiltrating established social media groups, chats, forums and spreading fake news or conspiracy theories.
Amplifying extreme views, opinions, voices to work on audience’s emotions.
Subliminal manipulation of audiences by focusing on violence and multiplying graphic images in reported events.
Triggering ‘psychological contagion’ – presenting emotionally charged disinformation to influence audiences and spread specific narratives.
Trolling – opening fake accounts in social media and producing, distributing, sharing abusive or mocking messages.
Using clickbait to attract users to follow a link leading to an article or video presenting disinformation narrative.